Lack of access to clean sources of energy is a major impediment to development through health related complications such as increased respiratory infections and air pollution. The type of cooking fuel used by households is related to the socio-economic status of households. High level energy sources are cleaner but cost more and are used by households with higher levels of income compared with simpler sources of fuel, mainly firewood, which are used by households with a lower socio-economic profile (see figure 2.35).
Figure 2.35 : Energy sources and socioeconomic status
Figure 2.36: Main cooking fuel at the national level and by rural / urban
A total 65 percent of households in the country use primitive fuels, mostly firewood (64 percent), as the main source of cooking fuel, followed by transitional fuels, mostly charcoal (17.0 percent). Only 6 percent of households use advanced fuels, mostly LPG (5 percent). The use of advanced fuels is 16 times more while the use of transitional fuels is 7 times more in urban areas than in rural areas. The use of primitive fuels is 4 times more in rural areas than in urban areas.
Figure 2.37 : Cooking fuel by county
As illustrated in figure 2.37, the use of advanced fuels in Nairobi County is 56 times more than in Mandera County. The use of transitional fuels in Mombasa County is 40 times more than in Wajir County while the use of primitive fuels in Wajir County is 47.5 times more than in Nairobi County.