Access to safe human waste disposal methods is crucial for the health and wellbeing of people. Lack of access to safe human waste disposal facilities leads to higher costs to the community through pollution of rivers, ground water and higher incidence of air and water borne diseases. Other costs include reduced incomes as a result of disease and lower educational outcomes. Nationally, 61 percent of the population has access to improved methods of waste disposal as indicated in figure 2.33. Improved waste disposal modes include connection to main sewer, septic tank, cesspit, Ventilated-Improved Pit (VIP) latrine, and covered pit latrine. Unimproved methods include uncovered pit latrine, bucket latrine, bush and other sources.
Figure 2.33: Human waste disposal at the national level and by rural/ urban
People living in rural areas have over two times more dependence on unimproved sanitation than their urban counterparts. Pit latrines in Kenya are the most common methods of waste disposal with 74 percent of Kenyans using them (VIP latrines are used by 5 percent; covered latrines are used by 48 percent; and uncovered latrines are used by 21 percent). A sizeable population (17.5 percent) still uses the bush to dispose human waste.
Figure 2.34 : Human waste disposal by county
Access to improved modes of waste disposal in Nairobi County is 15 times more than in Wajir County as illustrated in figure 2.34.