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Water and Sanitation
Among the most basic services and infrastructure are those related to water and sanitation. Inequalities in access to improved sources of water and proper sanitation are indicative of severe deprivation. These inequalities have historically been attributed to low incomes, cultural, economic, regulatory and institutional set ups (UNDP, 2006).
The quality of water is related to the source – improved or unimproved. Improved water sources are less prone to contamination and hence are safer. Access to safe drinking water is critical for the health outcomes of individuals and households. Improved water sources include piped water, rain harvested water, borehole water and water from protected wells. Unimproved water sources include water from rivers or streams, dams, ponds, lakes, unprotected wells, unprotected springs, jabia, water vendors and other sources. Profiling households’ access to water and sanitation facilities will inform relevant authorities about the magnitude of the problem and highlight geographical areas for priority interventions. For example, informal settlements in urban areas usually have fewer connections to piped water supply and hence have higher use of unimproved water sources.
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